´╗┐MoS2 Quantum Dot/Graphene Hybrids for Advanced Interface Engineering of a CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cell with an Efficiency of over 20%


molybdenum disulfide perovskite



Interface engineering of organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) plays a pivotal role in achieving high power conversion efficiency (PCE). In fact, the perovskite photoactive layer needs to work synergistically with the other functional components of the cell, such as charge transporting/active buffer layers and electrodes. In this context, graphene and related two-dimensional materials (GRMs) are promising candidates to tune “on demand” the interface properties of PSCs. In this work, we fully exploit the potential of GRMs by controlling the optoelectronic properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrids both as hole transport layer (HTL) and active buffer layer (ABL) in mesoscopic methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite (MAPbI3)-based PSCs. We show that zero-dimensional MoS2 quantum dots (MoS2 QDs), derived by liquid phase exfoliated MoS2flakes, provide both hole-extraction and electron-blocking properties. In fact, on one hand, intrinsic n-type doping-induced intraband gap states effectively extract the holes through an electron injection mechanism. On the other hand, quantum confinement effects increase the optical band gap of MoS2 (from 1.4 eV for the flakes to >3.2 eV for QDs), raising the minimum energy of its conduction band (from −4.3 eV for the flakes to −2.2 eV for QDs) above the one of the conduction band of MAPbI3 (between −3.7 and −4 eV) and hindering electron collection. The van der Waals hybridization of MoS2 QDs with functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO), obtained by chemical silanization-induced linkage between RGO and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane, is effective to homogenize the deposition of HTLs or ABLs onto the perovskite film, since the two-dimensional nature of RGO effectively plugs the pinholes of the MoS2 QD films. Our “graphene interface engineering” (GIE) strategy based on van der Waals MoS2 QD/graphene hybrids enables MAPbI3-based PSCs to achieve a PCE up to 20.12% (average PCE of 18.8%). The possibility to combine quantum and chemical effects into GIE, coupled with the recent success of graphene and GRMs as interfacial layer, represents a promising approach for the development of next-generation PSCs.

Leyla Najafi, Babak Taheri, Beatriz Martín-García, Sebastiano Bellani, Diego Di Girolamo, Antonio Agresti, Reinier Oropesa-Nuñez, Sara Pescetelli, Luigi Vesce, Emanuele Calabrò, Mirko Prato, Antonio E. Del Rio Castillo, Aldo Di Carlo, Francesco Bonaccorso

DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.8b05514

ACS Publications
Publication Date (Web): September 21, 2018



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